|Aluminum||Thought to contribute to Alzheimer’s Disease.
Found in almost all antiperspirants.
Works by blocking pores so sweat cannot be released by the skin.
|Artificial colours||FD&C, derived from coal tar.
For example, Azo dyes are a risk to asthmatics, eczema sufferers and people sensitive to aspirin.
Causes hyperactivity in children, severe headaches, blurred vision and itchy/watery eyes and nose (Antczak, 2001).
|Benzoates||Benzoates Benzoic acid, sodium benzoate or parahydroxy benzoate.
Used as a preservative in cosmetics and fizzy drinks.Causes gastric irritation, numbing of the mouth and aggravates asthma (Antczak, 2001).
|Certain essential oils||Rosemary is harmful to epileptics.Sage is not recommended for pregnant women.|
|DEA, MEA, TEA||Causes allergic reactions, irritating to eyes and dries out hair and skin (Fairley, 2001).|
|Dibutyl phthalate||Found in all persons tested by the CDC (Center for Disease Control, USA) in a 2000 Fall study.
Highest levels were found in women of reproductive age.
Causes birth defects in animals, and damaging to the male reproductive system (ABC News, Internet Ventures 2000).
Used in cosmetics to assist the absorption of other ingredients.
Causes skin reactions.
Imidazolidinyl urea is the second most identified preservative causing contact dermatitis ( American Academy of Dermatology: Fairley, 2001).
|Fragrances||Can contain up to 200 undeclared substances (Fairley, 2001).
Major cause, in addition to artificial colours, of skin irritations and allergies (Antczak, 2001).
May cause dizziniess, skin irritation and hyperpigmentation (Fairley, 2001).
|Genetically Modified Organisms||Soy, Corn
Effects still undetermined.
|Isopropyl Alcohol||Drying agent, from petroleum.|
|Keratolytic chemicals||Such as hydroxyl acids, retinoic acid.
Corrosive, used in skin peels.
Dissolves the stratum corneum of the epidermis (outermost layer), making skin more sensitive to sun damage.
Accelerates production of dead skin cells; the skin thickens to repair its surface so that vulnerable skin cells underneath are protected from the effects of skin peeling.(Antczak, 2001).
|Methylisothiazolinone||Causes allergic reactions and irritations (Fairley, 2001).|
Triggers skin irritations and may be an xerestrogen (Fairley, 2001).May play a role in falling sperm counts and rising breast cancer rates (Fairley, 2001).Used in 99% of all cosmetics (Fairley, 2001), and in many so-called ‘natural’ products.
|Parraffin||Derived from petroleum.
In the form of wax, mineral oil or petrolatum.
Comedogenic, i.e.blocks pores.
|Propylene Glycol||When derived from petroleum.
Increases the amount of acid in the body, resulting in metabolic problems.
Large amounts are needed to produce this effect (Agency forToxic Substances and Disease Registry or ATSDR, 2003).
|Sodium laureth sulfate, sodium lauryl sulfate||Forms carcinogenic nitrogen compounds when combined with specific ingredients.
Irritating to eyes, skin and lungs (Antczak, 2001).
Harmful if swallowed and may cause damage to eyes (Antczak, 2001).
Not suitable for vegans, and may be a skin irritant.
|Toluene||Found in many nail products and nail polish removers.
Produced during the process of making gasoline and other fuels from crude oil or coal.
Evaporates into the air when products containing toluene are opened.
May affect the nervous system, and/or cause tiredness, confusion, weakness, nausea, or loss of appetite.
Symptoms disappear when exposure is eliminated (ATSDR, 2003).